Biofuels and their sources of production: A review on cleaner sustainable alternative against conventional fuel, in the framework of the food and energy nexus

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Energy Nexus

Volume 4

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Sangita Mahapatra

Dilip Kumar

Brajesh Singh

Pravin Kumar Sachan

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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nexus.2021.100036

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Highlights

• In current times a substantial negative impact on the environment has occurred due to increasing industrialization and energy demand due to which 0.5% rate of CO 2 emission has increased and 1.3% primary energy consumption.

• The utilization of conventional fuels is a significant pollutant for various pollution types, majorly air and water.

• The incorporation of biofuels can be a positive step towards sustainable living. This is because it has two significant properties- sustainability and renewable.

• Biofuels are fuel derived and produced from organic material such as plants, agricultural crops, algae and animal wastes.

• Biofuels are an adequate substitute for petroleum-derived fuel or any conventional fuels .

Abstract

Modern times are facing a massive crisis with rising global energy demand and carbon dioxide emission due to the consumption of fossil fuels. The depletion of petroleum-derived fuel has created a demand for an alternative fuel source. Fossil fuels are also regarded as conventional fuels, are the prime sources of non-renewable energy, whose loss cannot be sustained in years. According to the 2019 global statistical review of world energy, there is a 0.5% increased carbon dioxide emission rate and 1.3% primary energy consumption worldwide. These increased rates are a triggered alarm to humankind and the environment. Meanwhile, renewable sources such as biofuel show a potential usage with low carbon dioxide emission, less polluting and can be created from biomass in the forms of organic waste. Moreover, they are effective against greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission and the impact of changing climate from transports and vehicles. Today the biofuel research is performed globally because of the two fundamental properties, sustainability and renewability. There are many effective biomass production sources and fall into three categories, including the First generation, Second generation and Third generation biofuel. The first generation comprises food crop-related biomass, whereas the second generation includes lignocellulosic biomass, and the third generation features potential renewable sources in the form of algal biomass. The paper aims to review the various sources of biofuels and the methods used in the production, and discuss its advantages and sustainability.

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Keywords

Biofuel

Conventional fuels

Nexus

GHGS

Biomass

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© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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Energy Nexus. Volume 4. Author links open overlay panel. Sangita Mahapatra. Dilip Kumar. Brajesh Singh. Pravin Kumar Sachan. Show more. Add to Mendeley. Share. Cite. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nexus.2021.100036. Get rights and content. Under a Creative Commons. license. Highlights. • In current times a substantial negative impact on the environment has occurred due to increasing industrialization and energy demand due to which 0.5% rate of CO 2 emission has increased and 1.3% primary energy consumption. • The utilization of conventional fuels is a significant pollutant for various pollution types, majorly air and water. • The incorporation of biofuels can be a positive step towards sustainable living. This is because it has two significant properties- sustainability and renewable. • Biofuels are fuel derived and produced from organic material such as plants, agricultural crops, algae and animal wastes. • Biofuels are an adequate substitute for petroleum-derived fuel or any conventional fuels . Abstract. Modern times are facing a massive crisis with rising global energy demand and carbon dioxide emission due to the consumption of fossil fuels. The depletion of petroleum-derived fuel has created a demand for an alternative fuel source. Fossil fuels are also regarded as conventional fuels, are the prime sources of non-renewable energy, whose loss cannot be sustained in years. According to the 2019 global statistical review of world energy, there is a 0.5% increased carbon dioxide emission rate and 1.3% primary energy consumption worldwide. These increased rates are a triggered alarm to humankind and the environment. Meanwhile, renewable sources such as biofuel show a potential usage with low carbon dioxide emission, less polluting and can be created from biomass in the forms of organic waste. Moreover, they are effective against greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission and the impact of changing climate from transports and vehicles. Today the biofuel research is performed globally because of the two fundamental properties, sustainability and renewability. There are many effective biomass production sources and fall into three categories, including the First generation, Second generation and Third generation biofuel. The first generation comprises food crop-related biomass, whereas the second generation includes lignocellulosic biomass, and the third generation features potential renewable sources in the form of algal biomass. The paper aims to review the various sources of biofuels and the methods used in the production, and discuss its advantages and sustainability. Previous article in issue. Next article in issue. Keywords. Biofuel. Conventional fuels. Nexus. GHGS. Biomass. Recommended articles. Cited by (0) © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.